The holiday of Shavuos, known as Zman Matan Toraseinu, commemorates Maamad Har Sinai, when all of Klal Yisrael heard Hashem’s voice, saw thunder and heard lightning, and received the Ten Commandments. There is a Machlokes in the Gemara regarding the exact date of Matan Torah (Vav Sivan vs. Zayin Sivan), and as a result, we celebrate both days. Infamously, following Matan Torah, Moshe ascended to receive the rest of the Torah from Hashem directly, promising to return forty days later. Due to a miscalculation of about six hours according to Rashi (Shmos 32:1), Bnei Yisrael feared that Moshe had died when he was delayed in descending, and Chet Ha’Egel ensued. When Moshe returned, he saw Bnei Yisrael worshipping the golden calf, and promptly smashed the Luchos.
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